Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Shipping and Implementation for the Marine Fuel Sulphur Directive
This report is a scoping study for greenhouse gas policy for maritime transport and it develops guidance for the implementation of the Marine Fuel Sulphur Directive. It comprises four sections that can be read independently. On greenhouse gas policy, the report concludes that the most promising policy options to consider is extending ETS to maritime transport. If this turns out to be not feasible, the EC could consider differentiating harbour dues on the basis of an efficiency indicator or introducing a maximum limit value of such an indicator for ships calling at EU ports. The current IMO CO2 index is not considered to be a suitable efficiency indicator for these two latter options. On implementation of the Marine Fuel Sulphur Directive, the report explores the different compliance options that ship operators have and the costs of each of these options. Special attention is given to exhaust gas cleaning systems, but as most of these technologies are not commercially available yet, conclusions have to be based on reports on technical trials. The report also explores the possibilities for States to enforce compliance with the directive. Section A contains guidance for the implementation of the Marine Fuel Sulphur Directive (2005/33/EC). Germanischer Lloyd is the main author of this section. Section B describes the current experiences with the IMO CO2 index and provides recommendations for its use. MARINTEK is the main author of this section. Section C is a technical report on sulphur abatement technologies. DNV is the main author of this section. Section D develops and assesses policy options for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of shipping. This section has been written by CE Delft.