The Dutch Ministry of Finance commissioned CE Delft to calculate the effects of a series of climate and environment policy packages to assess the anticipated CO2 cuts and costs to the national treasury. The following measures were examined:
- A national CO2 charge or input tax on coal and gas in the electricity sector.
- A national CO2 charge for both the electricity sector and industry with no recycling of tax revenues, or a variant with recycling for industry through a lowering of the energy charge or an increase in the current system for indirect emission costs (EU ETS).
- An increase in the third bracket of the energy charge on gas and electricity.
- A shift in the first bracket of the energy charge: less on electricity, more on gas.
- Abolition of special Vehicle Purchase Tax tariffs for commercial vans and taxis.
- Abolition of special Vehicle Circulation Tax tariffs for commercial vans.
- Abolition of the exemption from excise duty for inland shipping.
- Investment subsidies for greening of inland and/or maritime shipping.
- Introduction of a national aviation tax.
The measures examined were proposed by the project principal and are not necessarily the most cost-effective measures for addressing climate change.